Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is a severe and sight threatening condition and is the leading cause of vision loss in elderly people.
It occurs when the macular retina develops degenerative lesions causing the loss of the person's central field of vision and difficulties to see fine details clearly.



Globally, AMD ranks third as a cause of blindness after cataract and glaucoma. It is the primary cause in industrialized countries. The main risk factor is ageing but other risk factors might be related.


Several forms of AMD exist, dry AMD (atrophic AMD) and wet AMD (neovascular AMD).

Atrophic AMD (dry AMD) occurs when the cells beneath the retina begins to degenerate. A small yellow-white deposits called Drusen, which accumulate under the retina, is considered to be one of the most common early medical signs of dry AMD.

Neovascular AMD (wet AMD) begins when abnormal blood vessels form at the back of the eye through a process called angiogenesis and leak blood or fluid in the macula. Certain proteins known as growth factors are released and stimulate the formation of new, additional blood vessels. These unstable and weak new formed vessels leak and seep into the tissue forming scars that cause central vision deterioration.


Currently there is no treatment for early stage AMD. A combination of antioxidant Vitamins A, C, E and zinc, lifestyle changes such as stopping smoking and eating a healthy diet, may help reduce the risk of vision loss.